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 Post subject: Reading Material for the French Revolution
PostPosted: Fri May 26, 2017 12:16 pm 
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It seems like the French revolution served as an unconscious reference for every revolutionary movement up until at least 1917, Trotsky even consciously refers to the decline of the Russian revolution as it's 'Thermidor'. I know some of the main players and the course of events. I even have a thousand page biography of Napoleon hanging around on my bookshelf. But I don't have any works specifically on the revolution itself and it's course. I was wondering if anyone had any particular recommendations.

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 Post subject: Re: Reading Material for the French Revolution
PostPosted: Fri May 26, 2017 1:50 pm 
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Soboul-- The Sans Culottes, and The French Revolution
Mathiez, The French Revolution, and After Robespierre
LeFebvre, The French Revolution
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 Post subject: Re: Reading Material for the French Revolution
PostPosted: Mon May 29, 2017 4:08 pm 
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Wahnich's In Defense of the Terror


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 Post subject: Re: Reading Material for the French Revolution
PostPosted: Thu Jun 01, 2017 3:30 pm 
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In Russian there's a lot of history books too.

Here's one:
Communal lands in the era of the Great French Revolution, (1927), pp. 169, by S. KUNISKY and V. Poznjakov.
"Общинные земли в эпоху Великой Французской революции"

a review of it (google-translated) from the Historian-Marxist journal:
Spoiler:
S. KUNISKY and V. Poznyakov. Communal lands in the era of the Great French Revolution. Edited and with an introductory article by NM Lukin. Ed. Com. Academy. 1927. Стр. 169.

The destiny of communal lands and the class struggle because of them in England is devoted to a huge literature. This question has attracted more than one generation of researchers, while the same problem in France has been covered so far in the most meager way; Even in special studies of the agrarian system of pre-revolutionary France, communal lands received insufficient attention. Already in view of the above circumstances, the book under review becomes very interesting; Its significance also increases due to the fact that it was written by Marxists. It mainly represents the experience of the Marxist interpretation of the most important source of information about the state of communal lands in the era of the revolution, the materials published by Burden (Bourgin, Collected documents in the past, .

The book opens with a short essay Comrade. Lukin, clarifying the situation of communal lands on the eve of the revolution. The penetration of commodity-money relations into the French village was much slower than in England, this determined the rate of breaking old feudal forms of land ownership and land use, and in particular, slowed the process of the disappearance of one of the most important elements of the agrarian system of the feudal era-communal lands. Nevertheless, as early as the 16th century, the trends from the side of the seigneers to the seizure of communal lands were clearly revealed. This phenomenon gradually assumes such a large size that it forces the government to accept
Page 253

Measures of precautionary and prohibitive order, since the seizure of land, causing impoverishment of the peasant, made him an extremely faulty taxpayer, than the royal treasury suffered a very sensitive blow. Under Louis XIV was even issued an edict (1667), which abolished the sale and the emblem of communal lands. But this edict had no practical consequences, and the ordinances of 1677 and 1702. Actually annulled it, legitimizing the alienation of communal lands. From then on until the revolution, the seizure of land continues, and in the second half of the eighteenth century, the government itself, by intensifying the encouragement of the dehumidification of swamps and the clearing of arable land from under the forest itself, facilitated the seizure of wastelands; The invaders were usually the companies of the capitalists. The struggle of the communities against the barbaric conquests ends in most cases with failure; One of the most important reasons that determined such an outcome of the struggle was the disorder within the community itself and the mismatch of the interests of various strata of the peasants. In addition, the interests of intensification of the economy imperiously demanded the division of communal lands. It can be no exaggeration to say that already on the eve of the revolution a considerable part of the peasantry expressed unconditionally for the division of communal lands. All these processes are depicted with proper clarity in the concise, but very informative introductory article of Comrade Lukin.

The situation of communal lands in the era of the Legislative Assembly is devoted to the essay of comrade. Poznyakova. The author, using the materials of the questionnaire produced by the decision of the Committee of Agriculture and Trade (November 23, 1791), tries to clarify the attitude of various strata of French society and, first of all, different groups of peasantry to the division of communal lands. Insufficiency and incompleteness of the information contained in the questionnaire, as well as official character, prompts the author to use the petitions of citizens to the Legislative Assembly on the same issue; Despite the unconditional subektizm of such complaints and petitions, they are extremely valuable, as a direct reflection of "the different views and contradictions of different classes of rural masters on the issue of communal lands." It is necessary to give justice to the critical instinct of the author who carefully and skilfully uses the material and stipulates all the circumstances that have influenced in one way or another the well-known color (material) and sometimes the content.

In the article an interesting picture of agricultural France unfolded by revolutionary events unfolds. The requirements of the section of communal lands are becoming more urgent and urgent. In some places there were even places of unauthorized seizures of lands, but in almost all cases of unauthorized division the wealthy part of the peasantry used it, making a share commensurate with the already existing property or according to the paid taxes. This spontaneous urge to seize land was explained, along with other reasons, and the rise in grain prices, which caused the population to strive for an increase in the scale of the reserves.

Differences in the degree and type of decomposition of precapitalist relations in parts of France determined the unequal attitude of different strata of the population to communal lands. While the mass of non-agricultural departments expresses overwhelmingly for the section, the agricultural departments are much more passive about this issue and do not show any determination and confidence in resolving this issue.

The above unevenness in the level of economic development of parts of France compels the author to proceed to an analysis of the situation in each of the departments (he is, of course, limited to the most characteristic). The general conclusions of the author are as follows: for the section were the tops of the village (except for the so-called affeazhists, ie, that part of the kulaks that usurped or bought from the lord the plots of communal land) and the poor, the middle peasants were hesitant or opposed to the section. But aside from the question of whether to divide or not to divide was another question - how to divide. In solving the latter problem, the poor and the middle peasants were unanimous and joined the united front against the rich peasants with the demand of a household or pillow section.

The last three chapters of the book are devoted to the legislation of the three assemblies on the question of communal lands and the struggle of peasants for mastering them. Comrade Kuniski, in addition to Burden's materials, also uses the "Gerbeaux et Schmidt Proces-verbaux des comites d'agriculture et de Commerce de la Constituante et de la Legislative" and the compilation "Sagnac et Caron." Les comites des droits feodaux et de legislation et L'abolition du rule seignourial ". He often successfully reveals the class meaning of the Constitution of the Constitution, which directly favored the lords and the bourgeoisie. In the law on domains (May 22, 1790) and on the cancellation of the senoral rights (April 13, 1791), the Constitutional Court retained all the lands seized by them before August 4 (in their inalienable possession). In the matter of cantonnement she
Page 254

Clearly neglected the interests of users and caused them obvious damage to their decisions. In general, the Constitutional Party, in all its legislation, persistently took the standpoint of the landowner, always taking his interest, his property rights and his claims for primary peasants compared with peasants. "

Legislative began to work in legislative terms under considerably changed conditions. The activity of the peasants has increased, their exactitude has increased, and finally the class composition of the Assembly and the "Committee of Agriculture" has changed, and the question of communal lands was entrusted to somebody. The activities of this meeting proved to be much more fruitful, the reason for this was, first of all, peasant revolts. Actually, by decree of August 14, the division of communal lands was resolved in a positive sense, but the question of how to divide was still unresolved. It is characteristic that the Legislative Assembly was generally inclined to a decision that would satisfy a rich peasant no longer a landowner.

The general decision on the division of communal lands could not, however, satisfy the broad peasant masses, and since the final decision was delayed, the village itself began to eliminate communal farming. Now almost all the village population resolutely supports the section. By the way, the author very convincingly refutes the point of view of Kropotkin, who considered the poor part of the village zealous supporters of communal land ownership. In fact, the opposite happened. The class struggle in the countryside is becoming more and more acute; Being directed at first against the feudal lords, it gradually unfolds into a struggle between different strata of the peasantry; In some cases, even unsuccessful attempts are being made, attempts to take part of the land from the village rich people. The state of things required the intervention of state power and the prompt legislative resolution of the issue. The law of July 10 cut the knot of contradictions and, in general, resolved the issue in the interests of the poorly-built strata of the village. Later attempts to stop the division of communal lands in the era of the directory (Decree 9 June 1796) and the Empire (9 Brumaire VIII) could not seriously affect the process of eliminating communal land ownership. The agrarian revolution was accomplished.

In general, the book is a valuable contribution to scientific literature on the agrarian history of France, a specialist can not pass by it. It is, of course, inaccessible to a wide reader. Let's note some more stylistic roughnesses and not always successful translation.



another Russian marxist book 'The struggle of classes in the era of the Great French Revolution' (1931)
http://vive-liberta.livejournal.com/134982.html
table of contents:
Spoiler:
FOREWORD
N.Lukin. Alphonse Olar
V.Dalin. The manufactory stage of capitalism in France in the 18th century. In the coverage of the "Russian school"
I.3avitnevich. Stratification of peasants in Brittany on the eve of the Great French Revolution
N.Lukin. The struggle of classes in the French village and the food policy of the convention during the period of the second and third maximum
C. Friedland. 9th Thermidor
K.Dobrolyubsky. The class struggle in the Paris sections in the first months after the 9th Thermidor
S. Monosov. The last performances of the Parisian suburbs
N. Freiberg. Chaumet, Attorney General of the Paris Commune, in the first years of the French Revolution
O. Weinstein. French commercial colonies on the Levant under the old order and in the era of revolution
C. Friedland. Results of the study of the Great French Revolution in the USSR
N.Lukin. On the latest evolution of Albert Mathiez


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 Post subject: Re: Reading Material for the French Revolution
PostPosted: Fri Jun 02, 2017 4:27 pm 
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Ludwig Börne wrote some 100 pages (pp. 1053–156 in volume two of his CW: https://archive.org/details/LudwigBrneS ... hriftenBd2) of theses/thoughts, critical remarks, etc. on the French revolution.

Quote:
Die Diktatur des Volks, die Herrschaft der Anarchie, hat die Revolution und Frankreich gerettet.

The dictatorship of the people, the rule of anarchy, had saved the revolution and France.


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 Post subject: Re: Reading Material for the French Revolution
PostPosted: Wed Jun 07, 2017 1:31 am 
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Thermidor et Directoire (1794-1799), by Gabriel Deville: https://archive.org/stream/histoiresoci ... 5/mode/2up

(or in Dutch: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100422238)


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